Running SpinRite 6.0 on MacOS

SpinRite is an excellent disk maintenance and recovery tool provided by Steve Gibson over at https://www.grc.com. There are many success stories from its use provided by Steve frequently on his Security Now! podcast.

There are various guides online for running SpinRite on a Mac but none that I found worked exactly as described, so this is my guide based on how I got SpinRite to work on my Mac. The basic principle is to set up a virtual machine on your Mac and give it raw block access to the disk and then run SpinRite as normal within the VM.

This guide is written using the following versions of software so your experience may differ if you are using different versions:

MacOS Sierra 10.12.6
SpinRite 6.0
VirtualBox 5.1.26 r117224
PlayOnMac 4.2.12

This guide is designed for more advanced users as granting anything raw block access to a disk can be dangerous, especially if you select the wrong disk! Please be careful while following these steps.

This guide does rely on you connecting the hard disk up to your Mac via USB using a caddy. It may be that the disk is so far gone that it will not mount in MacOS and if that is the case you will not be able to use this guide. However it may still be possible to run SpinRite on it by connecting it directly to the motherboard of another computer via SATA or IDE.

Creating an ISO from the SpinRite.exe provided

When you first purchase and download SpinRite you are given the file SpinRite.exe to run which you can use to install locally or create an ISO to boot from. The easiest way to get the ISO is to run SpinRite.exe on any Windows system you have available, or even a Windows VM running on your Mac and copy the SpinRite.iso file across to your Mac. However if that simply is not possible for you an alternative way is to run SpinRite.exe in Wine on your Mac. I prefer the implementation provide by PlayOnMac so I will be using that in this guide. If you can create the ISO in Windows skip ahead to the next section.

The first step is to download and install PlayOnMac. Once you have it, launch it and select Install a program. In the new window that comes up click on Install a non-listed program.

Click Next on both “Please read this” windows then Next again when the Manual Installation wizard comes up. Select Install a program in a new virtual drive and click Next. Give it a name (SpinRite will do) and click Next. Do not tick any of the before installation options and click Next. Select 32 bits windows installation and click Next. Click Cancel on any additional installations that Wine prompts you about (such as Wine Gecko) until you reach the select set-up file to run screen.

Click Browse and select your SpinRite.exe file.

SpinRiteonPlayOnMac

When you click Next SpinRite will launch!

SpinRiteonPlayOnMac2

Click Create ISO or IMG File and then Save a Boot Image File. When the folder structure appears select Users > your username > Desktop to save the SpinRite.iso file to the desktop on your Mac. Once that has been successfully created exit SpinRite and PlayOnMac.

Running SpinRite on your Mac in a VirtualBox VM

The first step here is to download and install VirtualBox. There is nothing special about the installation so just follow the wizard through without changing any of the options.

Attach the hard disk you want to run SpinRite on by connecting it to a USB caddy and plugging the USB into your Mac. Unplug any other external drive you may have connected. Next, open Terminal and enter the command diskutil list to see the disks attached to your Mac. The disks prefixed with external will be the one you have connected up, followed by physical or virtual. In my example these are /dev/disk4 (physical) and /dev/disk5 (virtual). You may have multiple virtual entries depending on how many partitions are on the disk. You can also use the size of the disk to verify it is the correct one. Write down each of the disk identifiers that relate to the external drive.

diskutildisks

The next step is to unmount the virtual disk partitions, but not the physical disk. In my case that means unmounting /dev/disk5. To do this type diskutil unmountdisk /dev/disk5. Repeat this for any other virtual disk partitions your drive has.

UnmountDisk

Now you need to create a vmdk file that will be attached to the virtual machine. This vmdk will direct all input and output to the physical disk you have connected. This is done using the following command:

sudo /usr/local/bin/VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename RawDisk.vmdk -rawdisk /dev/disk4

Note that for this command you must use the disk identifier for the physical disk and not any of the virtual disks. In my case this is /dev/disk4. If you get an error stating VERR_RESOURCE_BUSY make sure have you have unmounted every virtual disk. When you run the command you will be prompted for your password, enter it and press enter.

Createvmdk

This will create a file RawDisk.vmdk in the root of your home directory. This will also re-mount the disk. Unmount it again using diskutil unmountdisk /dev/disk5 (virtual ones again).

Now you need to launch VirtualBox as root which can also be done using Terminal. This is required to allow read and write access to a raw device. Launch VirtualBox using the following command:

sudo /Applications/VirtualBox.app/Contents/MacOS/VirtualBox

launchVirtualBox

Do not close this Terminal window. As VirtualBox was launched through Terminal you must keep Terminal open throughout the rest of the process and while using SpinRite.

Create a new VM by clicking New, give it a name, select Other under Type and under version select DOS, then click Continue.

NewVM

Under Memory size the default of 32 MB is more than enough so accept that and click Continue.

VMmemory

Under Hard disk select Use an existing virtual hard disk file and click on the little folder icon next to it to bring up the file selection prompt.

SelectexistingHD

As you are running VirtualBox under root you will be taken to the folder structure for the root user account. However the RawDisk.vmdk file is saved in your user area. At the top of the file selection window click on the drop down box and select Macintosh HD (or whatever your Mac’s hard drive is called). From there select Users > your username.

SelectMacHD

In this folder you should find RawDisk.vmdk. Click on Open.

If you get an error VERR_RESOURCE_BUSY when trying to open RawDisk.vmdk make sure that the external virtual disks haven’t been mounted again (check using diskutil list and fix using the same diskutil unmountdisk command as before).

SelectRawDisk

As soon as you click Open Mac OS will actually remount the disk – how annoying! This must be rectified again by using the command the same way as before. In my case it is  diskutil unmountdisk /dev/disk5. You will have to do this in a new Terminal window as you can no longer interact with the one you launched VirtualBox from until you close VirtualBox.

Once that is done click Create.

NewVMHDSelected

Open Settings for the VM and go to Storage and select the CD icon underneath RawDisk.vmdk. Next to Optical Drive click on the small CD icon and use the file explorer that pops up to select your SpinRite.iso file. Once that is done click on OK.

SelectSpinRiteISO

Power on the VM and it should automatically boot from the CD and launch SpinRite! Assuming you already know how to use SpinRite make your way through the menu and select the disk you have attached to your Mac.

SpinRiteStarted

Start the SpinRite process and let it do its magic!

SpinRiteRunning

That’s it for running SpinRite on your Mac. Phew! … Bring on the future releases of SpinRite 6.x and 7.0 for better Mac compatibility!

Windows 7 Party Pack & Windows 7 Signature Edition

On October 22nd 2009 Microsoft launched Windows 7 and one of their ideas to promote it was to ask some of their, uh, more loyal fans to host a launch party. People signed up and those who where selected received a party pack in the mail. I happen to have one of those party packs, so let’s have a look at what you got for your rad Windows party:

  • A deck of playing cards
  • A puzzle
  • A poster
  • Ten gift bags
  • A table top piece
  • A pack of napkins
  • A copy of Windows 7 Ultimate (dubbed Signature Edition as it has a print of Steve Ballmer’s signature on it)

It seems all of the items were designed to show off some of the wacky strange creatures art that was included as wallpapers in Windows 7.

Personally I think the poster and gift bags are really quite nice! People in the US who received this pack also got some balloons, some streamers and some coupons and offers for other products like Kaspersky AV and Zune.

Of course the most exciting reason to receive this party pack was the free copy of Windows 7 Ultimate you got which comes in a nice sleeve with Steve Ballmer’s signature printed on it.

Inside was a full retail edition of Windows 7 Ultimate and both 32bit and 64bit installer disks. There’s nothing special about the version of Windows, it’s just plain old Windows 7 Ultimate. The only special thing is the sleeve it comes in.

Migrating your Microsoft PKI infrastructure to Windows Server 2016 (Part 2)

Migrating your Microsoft PKI infrastructure to Windows Server 2016 (Part 1)
Migrating your Microsoft PKI infrastructure to Windows Server 2016 (Part 2)

In the second part of this guide I will be migrating my online issuing CA to Windows Server 2016. As before this guide is written as a guide to upgrade from a Windows Server 2012 R2 CA to a Windows Server 2016 CA, however it is equally valid for moving a CA from any older version of Windows server to Windows Server 2016.

The majority of the steps in this guide are identical to the steps for the offline root CA, however there are a few differences as this is a domain joined system and at the end of the guide you will need to re-register any certificate templates you have.

Preparation

Start by building your new Windows Server 2016 server. I recommend again that you give it the same name as your current issuing CA, although it is possible to change it if you are willing to modify some registry keys later on in the process. If you do give this server the same name do not join it to the domain yet. This will be done later in the guide once the existing issuing CA has been removed from the domain. You should also patch the new server with the latest Microsoft patches at this time.

Migration – Backing up your existing issuing CA server

The first step is to back up the CA using the command certutil -backup C:\SubCABackup KeepLog. If you do not care about keeping the logs then you can omit the KeepLog part and instead the logs will be truncated.

You will need to enter a password, remember it and make it complex as this backup contains your issuing CA private key.

backupIssuingCA

The next thing to backup is the CA configuration, which is stored in the registry in the following location: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\CertSvc. Back it up by typing reg export "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\CertSvc" C:\SubCABackup\CertSvcRegBackup.reg

backupIssuingCAReg

You now also need to make a record of what certificate templates you have created as these will need to be re-registered on the new CA. The easiest way to do this is to run the command Certutil -catemplates > "C:\SubCABackup\Catemplates.txt". This pipes the output to a file called Catemplates.txt which you can open later to see the names of the templates.

It is also worth backing up your CAPolicy.inf file which you can do easily enough by copying it into the backup folder by typing copy C:\Windows\CAPolicy.inf C:\SubCABackup.

Once you have done the work to backup your existing issuing CA it is time to uninstall the CA role. Before doing this run Get-WindowsFeature in Powershell and have a look at what additional CA features you currently have installed (for example you may have the Web Enrolment service and/or Online Responder roles installed). Make a note of these so that you know what features to install on the new issuing CA server.

windowsFeatures

To uninstall the certificate authority role use the Powershell command Remove-WindowsFeature Adcs-Cert-Authority and press enter. If you did have any additional CA roles installed you may need to remove those first; in my case I had to remove the Web Enrollment service (this was done by running Uninstall-AdcsWebEnrollment).

You will need to restart the server to complete the role uninstall.

It is now important that you copy the SubCABackup folder to your new issuing CA as the next step is to remove the existing issuing CA from the domain and power it down.

To remove the old issuing CA from the domain using Powershell type Remove-Computer HOSTNAME replacing HOSTNAME with the name of your issuing CA. Restart the server to complete the domain removal and then power down the old issuing CA.

Load Active Directory Users and Computer from a management workstation and delete the computer account for the old issuing CA.

Migration – Configuring your new issuing CA and restoring from the backup

Power on your new issuing CA and join it to the domain. You can do this from Powershell by typing in Add-Computer –DomainName yourdomain.com -Credential YOURDOMAIN\Administrator replacing the domain with your domain and the admin account with your admin account. Restart the server to complete the domain join.

Once the reboot has completed you must install the CA role. Do this using Powershell by typing in Add-WindowsFeature ADCS-Cert-Authority and pressing enter. As with the root CA this now needs to be configured using the backup from the old issuing CA, which you do with the following Powershell command:

Install-AdcsCertificationAuthority -CAType EnterpriseSubordinateCA -CertFile "C:\SubCABackup\LaptopPoc Sub CA.p12" -CertFilePassword (Read-Host "Enter password" -AsSecureString)

Replace the value after -CertFile with the path and name of the .p12 file from your issuing CA backup. When you press enter you will be prompted for the password you used to back up your original issuing CA.

If this step is successful you will receive ErrorID 0 as your return code.

Next you need to restore the database and logs. Before you do this the CA service must be stopped. Do that by typing in net stop certsvc and pressing enter. Once it has stopped restore the database and logs using the command certutil -f -restore C:\SubCABackup. The -f forces an overwrite of the data that was configured in the barebones CA setup. Once again you must enter the password you used to backup your original issuing CA.

Before starting the CA service you must import the registry configuration. If you opted to change the name of your issuing CA server you need to go through the C:\SubCABackup\CertSvcRegBackup.reg file and replace and reference to the old server name with your new server name. Once this is done you can import the configuration by typing reg import "C:\SubCABackup\CertSvcRegBackup.reg".

Finish up the restoration process by copying the CAPolicy.inf file back into the Windows directory by using the command copy C:\SubCABackup\CAPolicy.inf C:\Windows

One final thing

There may be one other thing you need to consider before you can start your new issuing CA and that is the location of the web CRL. This is a website that is likely hosted inside your network that contains an up to date certificate revocation list which your issuing CA needs to have access to before it will start. This may not be a problem for you at all if your web CRL is hosted on an separate web server that you did not touch during this migration. However, if like me your web CRL is hosted on your issuing CA, this will have been lost when you decommissioned your previous issuing CA.

To resolve this you will need to install IIS on your new issuing CA and configure a new site to host your CRL. The URL to the CRL must match the previously configured CRL location, so if it used to be accessible via http://PKI.yourdomain.com then it must still be accessible there now. You can find the URL for your CRL by looking at any certificate issued by your CA, going to the Details pane and looking at the CRL Distribution Points field.

Restoring your certificate templates

With everything else done you can now start your new issuing CA by typing in net start certsrv. Now you will need to re-register each of the certificate templates you had on your previous issuing CA. Open the Catemplates.txt file you saved by typing notepad Catemplates.txt and use it as a reference for the names for each of your templates. You will need to run the following command for each one:

certutil -setcatemplates +TEMPLATENAME

Replace TEMPLATENAME with the name of your certificate template. Note that + before the template name.

restoreCATemplates

Do this for each of your templates. Once completed all of your templates will be available again and all issuing permissions will be retained.

That completes the process of migrating your issuing CA to a new server. If you have multiple issuing CA servers you will need to repeat this process for each of them. You may also need to reinstall any additional certificate service roles such as Web Enrollment1, which you can do either in Powershell or by using a management workstation with Server Manager. You should make sure you delete the C:\SubCABackup folder so that you don’t leave your issuing CA private key laying around.

1You may encounter error 0x80070057 when reinstalling the Web Enrollment role. If you do, take a look at this blog post: AD: Certification Authority Web Enrollment Configuration Failed 0x80070057 (WIN32: 87)

Migrating your Microsoft PKI infrastructure to Windows Server 2016 (Part 1)

Migrating your Microsoft PKI infrastructure to Windows Server 2016 (Part 1)
Migrating your Microsoft PKI infrastructure to Windows Server 2016 (Part 2)

As part of my efforts to upgrade my POC lab to Windows Server 2016 I got around to migrating my PKI infrastructure. This consists of an offline root CA and an online issuing CA. In Part 1 of this guide I will be migrating my offline root CA to Windows Server 2016.

This guide is written as a guide to upgrade from a Windows Server 2012 R2 CA to a Windows Server 2016 CA, however very little has changed since the Windows Server 2003 days and this guide is equally valid for moving a CA from any older version of Windows server to Windows Server 2016.

I am a big advocate of the core versions of Windows Server and in this guide I will be migrating from and to Windows Server core. A CA is a perfect example of a server that does not need the overhead of the GUI and additional services that comes with the full GUI edition of Windows Server and if you don’t already use core for your CA, this is a perfect opportunity to migrate to one!

Preparation

In preparation for the migration build your new Windows Server 2016 server. I recommend that you give it the same name as your current root CA server – it is possible to give it a different name however this will require changing registry keys later on in the migration process. Take this opportunity to patch it with the latest Microsoft patches!

Migration – Backing up your existing root CA server

The first step is to back up the CA using the command certutil -backup C:\RootCABackup KeepLog. Note that the KeepLog part is optional, however without it the backup will truncate the logs. I prefer to bring the whole lot across in case the logs are ever needed in the future for auditing purposes.

You will need to enter a password, remember it and make it complex. This backup contains your root CA private key, do not make it easy for an attacker to obtain.

certutilBackup

The next thing to backup is the CA configuration, which is stored in the registry in the following location: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\CertSvc. Back it up by typing reg export "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\CertSvc" C:\RootCABackup\CertSvcRegBackup.reg

regBackup

Additionally it is worth backing up your CAPolicy.inf file which you can do easily enough by copying it into the backup folder, by typing copy C:\Windows\CAPolicy.inf C:\RootCABackup

copyPolicy

Finally, copy the RootCABackup folder to your new CA.

Migration – Configuring your new root CA and restoring from the backup

Log on to your new root CA server and start by installing the CA role. The easiest way to do this is with PowerShell, so type powershell into your administrative CMD prompt and enter the following command to install the CA role: Add-WindowsFeature ADCS-Cert-Authority

Now configure this new CA using the backup of the old CA. This can also be done with PowerShell using the following command:

Install-AdcsCertificationAuthority -CAType StandaloneRootCA -CertFile "C:\RootCABackup\LaptopPoc Root CA.p12" -CertFilePassword (Read-Host "Enter password" -AsSecureString)

Replace the value after -CertFile with the path and name of the .p12 file from your root CA backup. When you press enter you will be prompted for the password you used to back up your original root CA.

If this step is successful you will receive ErrorID 0 as your return code.

configureCA

This restores the root CA private key, however next you need to restore the database and logs. Before you do this the CA service must be stopped. Do that by typing in net stop certsvc and pressing enter. Once it has stopped restore the database and logs using the command certutil -f -restore C:\RootCABackup. The -f forces an overwrite of the data that was configured in the barebones CA setup. Once again you must enter the password you used to backup your original root CA.

certutilRestore

Do not start the certificate authority service just yet! Before doing that the registry settings from the previous root CA need to be restored. Do this by typing reg import "C:\RootCABackup\CertSvcRegBackup.reg"

Note: If you chose to change the name of your root CA server you will need to go through the values in this registry file and change any reference to the old server name to your new server name before importing it.

Finally copy the CAPolicy.inf file back into the Windows directory by using the command copy C:\RootCABackup\CAPolicy.inf C:\Windows

Now you can start the root CA by typing net start certsrv. The service should start with out any issues. To verify this you should log on to a management workstation and load the Certificate Authority MMC snap-in, connect to the new server and verify that your issued / revoked certificates are listed (as this is a root CA there should be very few issued certificates!)

Once you are satisfied that the new server is configured correctly and working, make sure that you delete the C:\RootCABackup folder. As previously mentioned, this contains your root CA private key, you do not want to leave that laying around!

Coming soon is Part 2, which will focus on migrating the issuing certificate authority. Thankfully the steps for this are very similar with only small differences due to it being a domain joined server.

Error 80070057 when attempting to update Windows Server 2012 R2

Once when I was updating some servers running the version of Windows Server 2012 R2 I encountered something odd; no patches appeared in Software Center or in the Windows Update panel, even though the server was several years out of date and definitely had applicable updates!

In WindowsUpdate.log I found the following error message repeating:

cidimage001

The fix for this is to manually download and install KB2919355, which is the April 2014 update rollup for Windows Server 2012 R2. After this has been installed and the server has restarted, re-run your updates scan and updates will show up in Windows Update or Software Center.

Increasing the maximum run time for Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 cumulative updates

One of the things I have noticed since starting to deploy Windows Server 2016 is that the cumulative updates can fail to install when deployed from SCCM. It starts to run but then times out due to the maximum run time having been reached. By default this is set to 10 minutes. However due to the updates being larger and taking longer to install than updates prior to the cumulative updates era 10 minutes doesn’t seem to be long enough. The fix for this is to simply increase the maximum run time for cumulative updates for both Windows Server 2016 and Windows 10 from 10 minutes to 30 minutes.

Screen Shot 2017-06-05 at 23.12.35

Screen Shot 2017-06-05 at 23.12.47

This is a bit tedious as you’ll have to do it every month for both Windows Server 2016 and every version of Windows 10 you have in your environment. Hopefully Microsoft soon catches on to this and changes the default run time to 30 minutes so that this ceases to be an issue. There is already a Configuration Manager UserVoice entry for this idea, so if you’re reading this, pop over and vote to increase its visibility!

ISATAP failing with error 0x490

ISATAP can be very useful if you need to manage out from a machine with an IPv4 address to a machine with an IPv6 address. This is commonly used where DirectAccess has been deployed as all DA clients will be using IPv6. Being able to RDP to them or use the SCCM Remote Control feature from a machine inside your network is very helpful for the IT support staff – it’s as if the user was just working from their desk like usual!

One time I was configuring an ISATAP interface on a server and I got the follow error in the event log:

Unable to update the IP address on ISATAP.yourdomain.com. Update type: 1. Error Code: 0x490

I scratched my head over this for quite a while – setting up an ISATAP interface should be easy! After a while I remembered that there was a history of disabling the IPv6 components on servers via GPO. It turns out that even though the GPO had been removed, the setting to disable IPv6 had been tattooed on the servers it had once been applied to.

To check this I had a look in the following location in the registry:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\TCPIP6\Parameters\DisabledComponents

The value was set to 0xFFFFFFFF (it may instead be set to 0xFF). This disables enough of the IPv6 components to prevent an ISATAP interface from being able to be created.

Simply delete the DisabledComponents key and restart the server. So long as everything else is set up correctly you will have your ISATAP interface when you next log in.